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Planning Obligations & the Planning System

Valuing Planning Obligations 2018-19
CCHPR researchers are participating in a collaborative project looking at developer contributions
Land value capture evidence published by House of Commons
Research commissioned by MHCLG is cited in report to the Housing, Communities and Local Government Committee, as published by the House of Commons.
The Incidence, Value and Delivery of Planning Obligations and Community Infrastructure Levy in England in 2016-17 (Inquiry)
Planning for Affordable Housing (PLANAFFHO)
Dr Sónia Alves's project PLANAFFHO, funded by a two year Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellowship, examined how land use planning contributes to the provision of affordable housing for people on low incomes, and how it has promoted a mix of housing tenures within new developments in three European capital cities - Copenhagen, Lisbon and London - since 2007.
Valuing Planning Obligations
CCHPR participated in a collaborative project entitled Research into the Incidence and Value of S106 and CIL. Led by the University of Liverpool, the project was funded by the Ministry for Housing, Communities and Local Government.
Performance bonds for highways and water supplies for new housing developments
The NHBC, together with the NHBC Foundation, commissioned this research project to investigate the circumstances and consequences of performance bonds required by highways authorities and water supply companies for housing developments. The NHBC estimates that it is the provider of 80% of the outstanding bonds in the sector.
Research on the nature of planning constraints
The aim of this research was to analyse the nature of planning constraints on the provision of housing. The research was commissioned by the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Committee.
Land Use Planning and the Production of Affordable Housing
This project, funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, TSA (then Housing Corporation), Countryside Agency, RICS and RTPI, explored the operation of s106 in producing additional affordable housing.
Value for Money of s106 in Providing Additional Affordable Housing
This study was commissioned by DCLG (then ODPM) as a parallel to the work on s106 and SHG funded by JRF and TSA (then the Housing Corporation). The work involved analysis of TSA and DCLG data, case studies, interviews with developers and housing associations and analysis of site specific financial information. The interim report fed into the consultation on an optional charge for affordable housing. Like other projects on s106, Sheffield collaborated on the work. The report has been published both in hard copy and on the DCLG web site.
Delivering affordable housing through s106: outputs and outcomes
There is anecdotal evidence that what is finally delivered on the ground through s106 may be different from what was originally negotiated – for example, a large site may be broken up and sold to different developers who may re-negotiate the S106 affordable housing provision. The project aimed to assess whether affordable housing is being lost or modified through negotiated changes to the initial agreed S106 as well as through non take-up of planning permission; and to gain an understanding of why this is happening and of patterns of behaviour. The project was undertaken jointly with the University of Sheffield.
The complementary roles of Social Housing Grant and affordable housing through the planning system in achieving additional affordable housing
This study compares the provision of new affordable housing via S106 with the 'traditional' approach whereby housing associations develop land with the aid of Housing Corporation funding. It looks at costs and additionality and finds that s106 is replacing the traditional approach, largely because it is an important means of accessing land for housing associations.
S106 Affordable Housing Provision: What is Going On?
This project aimed to find out what was happening on the ground to S106 negotiations and affordable housing delivery in a context of considerable uncertainty in the national and regional regulatory framework.
Forecasting and Managing Planning Obligations for Developer Contributions to Affordable Housing: A Feasibility Study
This feasibility study into how to improve the performance of S106 in delivering additional affordable housing comprised a policy and data review of the South West region, stakeholder interviews at national, regional and local levels, and four case studies from within the South West’s housing market areas.
Delivering affordable housing through the planning system in Wales
This project involved organising three training seminars in North and South Wales in May 2007 to inform local authority officers about the suite of material produced by the Welsh Assembly Government designed to improve their delivery of affordable housing through the planning system. A report on the seminars was produced for publication in November 2007.
Planning and affordable housing Member Training and Development Programme
This project delivered a training programme in negotiating affordable housing through S106 to elected members, particularly those with housing and planning portfolios. The work involved three seminars in North, Central and South Wales.
Promoting mixed communities through balanced lettings and asset management
The aims of the project, carried out for the Tenant Services Authority and Communities and Local Government, were to understand how to achieve a better balance between allocating social homes to the most needy, and preserving or improving the mix of the housing stock, in particular through balanced lettings and asset management policies. The project conducted 30 qualitative interviews with Chief Executives of RSLs and ALMOs and local authority Directors of Housing.
Good practice guide to delivering new affordable housing on S106 sites
The project aimed to explore current local planning authority practice, in order to identify which aspects contributed to the successful delivery of affordable housing on S106 sites.
Common starting points for S106 affordable housing negotiations
Communities and Local Government commissioned a two-stage research project to improve evidence on the dynamics of S106 negotiations for affordable housing and to explore what the best ‘common starting point’ (CSP) might be.
Practice guidance on affordable housing clauses in Section 106 agreements for local planning authorities in Wales
Through this project the Welsh Assembly Government aimed to provide practice guidance for local authorities in Wales on the drafting and application of affordable housing clauses in Section 106 (S106) agreements.
Improving the capacity of the planning system
This project comprised a series of regional round table discussions in the North, Midlands, East, South, London and Wales to assess the capacity of the planning system to deliver the government’s housing targets in sustainable communities and to make practical recommendations for improvement.
Further practice guidance on using Section 106 agreements to secure affordable housing during the economic downturn
The economic downturn has raised serious questions about the delivery of housing targets and the capacity of the planning system to deliver affordable housing. The Welsh Assembly Government wished to provide further guidance on the use of S106 agreements to secure affordable housing during the downturn.
Contributing to the political debate on planning and affordable housing
This project, commissioned by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation aimed to understand in more detail the range of instruments that are proposed as means of achieving both local empowerment and higher levels of market and affordable housing and to clarify the potential benefits and costs of moving to a more incentives based system.
Input into the consultation on the abolition of the Regional Spatial Strategies
CCHPR were commissioned by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation to assist in submitting their consultation response for the inquiry into the abolition of regional spatial strategies. The consultation focussing particularly on the implications for house building.
The future of inclusive design: the success of initiatives aiming to reduce inequality in spatial planning and the built environment
The aim of the research was to explore the success of equality-related initiatives in the field of spatial planning and the built environment. CCHPR worked with Women’s Design Groups, Disability Access Groups and Inclusive Design Groups.
The impact of the recent financial crisis on planning for affordable housing in England
This research aimed to identify: (1) how S106 was being used in very different market conditions and whether it could still work to deliver sufficient affordable housing; (2) how preparations for new policies that wpuld affect affordable housing delivery, such as the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL), had been altered by the recent financial crisis; (3) what alternative approaches were being considered or used for the delivery of affordable housing.
Estimating the impacts of the changes in S106 with the introduction of CIL on the quantity of affordable housing delivered
This project, conducted jointly with the University of Sheffield, estimated the impacts of the changes in Section 106 (S106), with the introduction of the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL, on the quantity of affordable housing delivered for the National Housing Federation.
The role of the planning system in delivering housing choice for older Londoners
This project looked into the housing needs of older people in London for the Greater London Authority. It was commissioned as a ‘think piece’, looking specifically at the role of the planning system in helping to ensure that older Londoners have a genuine choice of homes that they can afford and which meet their requirements for different sizes and types of dwelling in the highest quality environments.
Supporting assumptions used in planning for housing
This project aimed to produce five short notes on the main drivers of demographic change that would support a basic excel ‘tool’. Local authorities would be able to freely access the tool in order to help understand the impacts on future housing requirements in their area.
Maximising the performance of the new Section 106 and Community Infrastructure Levy Planning Framework with Local Authorities: Developing a planning gain model
Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research developed a simple model to estimate the impact of charging different CIL and S106 rates on the economic viability of development. The model has potential to assist local authorities in modelling the impact of different CIL and S106 rates on the economic viability of development across their area.
Understanding recent changes in household formation rates and their implications for planning for housing
This project will assist those producing local plans to understand what has happened recently and, in the light of that, make an informed judgement about the assumptions they should make for their plan period.

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