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The Incidence, Value and Delivery of Planning Obligations and Community Infrastructure Levy in England in 2016-17

The published report from the project 'The Incidence, Value and Delivery of Planning Obligations and CIL in England in 2016-17 gave a comprehensive account of the use of developer contributions.

Research for the Ministry for Housing Communities and Local Government looked into the extent and value of agreed planning obligations (also known as section 106 agreements) and Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) levied in England in 2016 to 2017. The work built upon 4 previous studies covering 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008 and 2011 to 2012.

The study:

  • updates the evidence on the current value and incidence of planning obligations
  • investigates the relationship between CIL and S106
  • investigates the negotiation processes involved with section 106 and delays to the planning process
  • explores the monitoring and transparency of developer contributions

This study examines the use of developer contributions in England during the financial year 2016/17. In so doing, it presents an account of the value, incidence and delivery of both S106 planning obligations and CIL. This is the first occasion on which both these measures have been valued together since the introduction of CIL.


Published report

PDF document icon Section_106_and_CIL_research_report.pdf — PDF document, 5.18 MB (5429590 bytes)


Alex Lord, Richard Dunning, Bertie Dockerill

Gemma Burgess

Adrian Carro

Publication Date

March 2018