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This paper seeks to make an association between real estate development in England and the longer term path dependence that has bequeathed an extremely geographically unequal pattern of economic development. It presents empirical research from a major study of ‘developer contributions’ that associates behavioural aspects of the planning process through which developer contributions are determined and the creation of virtuous/vicious circles of development. The authors contend that these virtuous and vicious circles represent an important but under-researched aspect of the highly varied path dependencies described as poverty and affluence traps.

Lord, A., Burgess, G., Gu, Y., & Dunning, R. (2019). Virtuous or vicious circles? Exploring the behavioural connections between developer contributions and path dependence: Evidence from England. Geoforum, 106, 244-252.

The paper is based on research funded by MHCLG and led by the University of Liverpool.


Alex Lord

Gemma Burgess

Yiquan Gu

Richard Dunning

Publication Date

November 2019