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Planning for Housing

Valuing Planning Obligations
CCHPR is participating in a collaborative project entitled Research into the incidence and value of s106 and CIL. Led by the University of Liverpool, the project is funded by the Department for Communities and Local Government.
Performance bonds for highways and water supplies for new housing developments
The NHBC, together with the NHBC Foundation commissioned this research project to investigate the circumstances and consequences of performance bonds required by highways authorities and water supply companies for housing developments. The NHBC estimates that it is the provider of 80% of the outstanding bonds in the sector.
Research on the nature of planning constraints
The aim of this research is to analyse the nature of planning constraints on the provision of housing. The research has been commissioned by the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Committee.
Understanding recent changes in household formation rates and their implications for planning for housing
This project will assist those producing local plans to understand what has happened recently and, in the light of that, make an informed judgement about the assumptions they should make for their plan period.
Mechanisms to increase housing supply in England
The Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research recently completed an international review of land supply and planning systems, published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation March 2013. The review identified measures taken successfully in other countries to bring land forward for housing. However, it showed that in England many of these mechanisms are already available or in place in some form. The key issue is therefore why are they not used more widely or more effectively? This new research, funded by the RICS, builds on this review to identify the relevant comparable instruments in England and what the barriers and constraints are on using these mechanisms more successfully.
Maximising the performance of the new Section 106 and Community Infrastructure Levy Planning Framework with Local Authorities: Developing a planning gain model
The Centre developed a simple model to estimate the impact of charging different CIL and S106 rates on the economic viability of development. The model has huge potential to assist local authorities in modelling the impact of different CIL and S106 rates on the economic viability of development across their area.
Supporting assumptions used in planning for housing
This project aims to produce five short notes on the main drivers of demographic change that will support a basic excel ‘tool’ that local authorities can access freely to help understand the impacts on future housing requirements in their area.
The role of the planning system in delivering housing choice for older Londoners
This project is looking into the housing needs of older people in London for the Greater London Authority. It is being commissioned as a ‘think piece’ looking specifically at the role of the planning system in helping to ensure that older Londoners have a genuine choice of homes that they can afford and which meet their requirements for different sizes and types of dwelling in the highest quality environments.
Estimating the impacts of the changes in S106 with the introduction of CIL on the quantity of affordable housing delivered
This project, conducted jointly with the University of Sheffield, is estimating the impacts of the changes in Section 106 (S106) with the introduction of the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) on the quantity of affordable housing delivered for the National Housing Federation.
Helping inform the Labour Party Housing Review
This comprises six short papers, commissioned by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, to help address the questions asked in the Labour Party Housing Review. The papers are on Planning, Places, Housing Supply, Owner Occupation, Social Renting and the Private Rented Sector.
The impact of the recent financial crisis on planning for affordable housing in England
The impact of the recent financial crisis on planning for affordable housing in England – local authority responses and future pathways. This research will identify, (1) how S106 is being used in very different market conditions and whether it can still work to deliver sufficient affordable housing; (2) how preparations for new policies that will affect affordable housing delivery, such as the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL), have been altered by the financial crisis; (3) what alternative approaches are being considered or used for the delivery of affordable housing.
The future of inclusive design: the success of initiatives aiming to reduce inequality in spatial planning and the built environment
The aim of the research was to explore the success of equality-related initiatives in the field of spatial planning and the built environment. CCHPR worked with Women’s Design Groups, Disability Access Groups and Inclusive Design Groups.
Input into the consultation on the abolition of the Regional Spatial Strategies
CCHPR were commissioned by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation to assist in submitting their consultation response for the inquiry into the abolition of regional spatial strategies. The consultation focussing particularly on the implications for house building.
Evaluating the Women’s Design Group project for the Women’s Design Service
This project evaluates the Women’s Design Group project for the Women’s Design Service, reflecting on the success of the project and making recommendations for taking the initiative forward.
Contributing to the political debate on planning and affordable housing
This project, commissioned by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation aimed to understand in more detail the range of instruments that are proposed as means of achieving both local empowerment and higher levels of market and affordable housing and to clarify the potential benefits and costs of moving to a more incentives based system.
Further practice guidance on using Section 106 agreements to secure affordable housing during the economic downturn
The economic downturn has raised serious questions about the delivery of housing targets and the capacity of the planning system to deliver affordable housing. The Welsh Assembly Government wishes to provide further guidance on the use of S106 agreements to secure affordable housing during the downturn.
Valuing planning obligations in England 2007/08
This project for Communities and Local Government builds on two previous studies valuing planning obligations in England in 2003-04 and 2005-06. The study aims to estimate the total number of agreements and obligations in 2007-08 and their value.
Improving the capacity of the planning system
This project comprised a series of regional round table discussions in the North, Midlands, East, South, London and Wales to assess the capacity of the planning system to deliver the government’s housing targets in sustainable communities and to make practical recommendations for improvement.
Common starting points for S106 affordable housing negotiations
Communities and Local Government commissioned a two-stage research project to improve evidence on the dynamics of S106 negotiations for affordable housing and to explore what the best ‘common starting point’ (CSP) might be.
Practice guidance on affordable housing clauses in Section 106 agreements for local planning authorities in Wales
Through this project the Welsh Assembly Government aims to provide practice guidance for local authorities in Wales on the drafting and application of affordable housing clauses in Section 106 (S106) agreements.
Evaluation of data sources relevant to the work of the National Housing and Planning Advice Unit
This project provided guidance on data sources to regions and local authorities.
Overview of availability and quality of Data Sources relevant to the work of the National Housing and Planning Advice Unit (NHPAU)
The National Housing and Planning Advice Unit (NHPAU) was an independent body set up to advise national and local government and other bodies on the affordability of market housing. Its creation followed Kate Barker’s Review of Housing Supply in 2004 and her recommendation for the creation of a body to provide expert advice on housing matters, particularly affordability. The Unit was governed by an expert Board that was chaired by Professor Stephen Nickell, CBE, FBA, a former member of the Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee. He is currently Warden of Nuffield College Oxford.
Good practice guide to delivering new affordable housing on S106 sites
The project aims to explore current local planning authority practice to identify what aspects contribute to the successful delivery of affordable housing on S106 sites.
Delivering affordable housing through the planning system in Wales
This project involved organising three training seminars in North and South Wales in May 2007 to inform local authority officers about the suite of material produced by the Welsh Assembly Government designed to improve their delivery of affordable housing through the planning system. A report on the seminars was produced for publication in November 2007.
Planning and affordable housing Member Training and Development Programme
This project was to deliver a training programme in negotiating affordable housing through S106 to elected members, particularly those with housing and planning portfolios. The work involved three seminars in North, Central and South Wales.
West Midlands Regional Spatial Strategy revisions – Re-run of the affordable housing figures
CCHPR carried out a series of re-runs of the affordable housing calculations for the West Midlands Regional Assembly to support its work as Regional Housing and Planning Body.
Forecasting and Managing Planning Obligations for Developer Contributions to Affordable Housing: A Feasibility Study
This feasibility study into how to improve the performance of S106 in delivering additional affordable housing comprises a policy and data review of the South West region, stakeholder interviews at national, regional and local levels, and four case studies from within the South West’s housing market areas.
S106 Affordable Housing Provision: What is Going On?
This project aimed to find out what was happening on the ground to S106 negotiations and affordable housing delivery in a context of considerable uncertainty in the national and regional regulatory framework.
Delivering affordable housing through s106: outputs and outcomes
There is anecdotal evidence that what is finally delivered on the ground through s106 may be different from what was originally negotiated – for example, a large site may be broken up and sold to different developers who may re-negotiate the S106 affordable housing provision. The project aimed to assess whether affordable housing is being lost or modified through negotiated changes to the initial agreed S106 as well as through non take-up of planning permission; and to gain an understanding of why this is happening and of patterns of behaviour. The project was undertaken jointly with the University of Sheffield.
The complementary roles of Social Housing Grant and affordable housing through the planning system in achieving additional affordable housing
This study compares the provision of new affordable housing via S106 with the 'traditional' approach whereby housing associations develop land with the aid of Housing Corporation funding. It looks at costs and additionality and finds that s106 is replacing the traditional approach, largely because it is an important means of accessing land for housing associations.

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