In 2007-08, CCHPR carried out a study on the “ward penalty” in Birmingham, looking at the interactions between area deprivation and ethnicity in the city. As well as statistical and historical research, this involved two case studies, Nechells and Sparkbrook, both located in the inner city. For this extension, CCHPR will be doing two additional case studies of deprived neighbourhoods, but this time located further out of the city centre, and with a largely white British population. The research methods are as before, i.e. interviews with around fifteen young adults in each area, interviews with key stakeholders, and small-area statistical analysis.